So-called integrated circuit technology, is the transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and so on certain process will be needed for the circuit elements such as transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, and then use the proper process for interconnection, then encapsulated within the shell, the volume of the whole circuit is greatly reduced, the number of wires and welding point is greatly reduced. So what are the manufacturing processes of integrated circuits?
1. Monolithic integrated circuit process
Using grinding, polishing, oxidation, diffusion, lithography, epitaxial growth, evaporation and a whole set of plane technology, transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and other components are simultaneously manufactured on a small piece of silicon, and the use of certain isolation technology, so that the electrical properties of the components are isolated from each other. The aluminum layer is then evaporated on the surface of the silicon wafer and etched into an interconnect pattern using lithography, so that the components are connected into a complete circuit as needed, forming a semiconductor monolithic integrated circuit.
2. Thin-film integrated circuit process
The transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and inductors of the whole circuit and their interconnects are composed of metals, semiconductors, metal oxides, various metal mixed phases, alloys or insulating medium films with a thickness of less than 1 micron, and overlapped by vacuum evaporation process, sputtering process and electroplating process. Integrated circuits made by this process are called thin-film integrated circuits.
3. Thick film integrated circuit process
Resistance, dielectric and conductor coatings accumulate on alumina, beryllium oxide ceramics or silicon carbide lined beryllium ceramics or silicon carbide lining. The deposition process uses a mesh mesh to make patterns of various films. The pattern is made by photography where no coating is deposited, and the latex is used to block the mesh. After cleaning, the alumina substrate is printed with conductive coating to make the internal connection line, resistor terminal welding area, chip adhesion area, capacitor bottom electrode and conductor film. After drying, it is baked at temperatures between 750 and 950 ° C, volatilizes the adhesive, sinteres the conductor material, and then makes resistors, capacitors, cross connections, insulators, and color seals by printing and firing processes. The active devices are fabricated by low eutectic welding, reflow welding, low melting point convex point inversion welding or beam leads, and then installed on the burning substrate, and the wires are welded into thick film circuits.
The above is the introduction of integrated circuit process. At present, monolithic integrated circuits are developing to high power, linear, high frequency and analog circuits in addition to higher integration. However, thin-film and thin-film hybrid ics also have advantages in microwave ics and high-power ics.