Don’t underestimate a chip just because it’s small. It’s packed with billions or even billions of transistors. So what’s going on with the chip? Why is it so hard to make? Today xiaobian will tell you the most basic principle of it.
The chip is mainly used to process binary digital signals. What is a binary signal? The numbers 0 and 1 form a string of information. In theory, all of the information in our universe can be converted to binary information, the strings of zeros and ones that say the chip can calculate, add, subtract, multiply, divide or convert. For example, the binary digital signal generated by my typing on a keyboard is converted into binary numbers that the computer monitor can understand. So it’s the central nervous system. How does the chip compute and convert binary numbers?
It relies on one of these called a diode or transistor. The most important function of a diode is to conduct electricity in one direction, and reverse current is not good. What is a diode? Diodes will use semiconductors. A semiconductor is a material between a conductor and an insulator, mainly silicon.
The P-type and n-type semiconductors are burned together to form a PN junction. The wire that connects the PN to the two ends, the diode. The output is called 1 and no voltage is called 0, thus achieving binary representation.
The first computers in history used more than 3,000 of these transistors, which could be the size of a room or two and weigh 30 tons.
Computing power is only 5,000 times per second. It’s worse than your current cell phone or any calculator. We need to update to make the diodes very small and then integrate more diodes in the same area to enhance computing power.
The easiest way to do this is not to arrange the diodes on a silicon chip, but to make them directly. Diodes are embedded directly into silicon wafers, and circuits are connected between these diodes to form what is called a chip.