Working principle of MCU single chip in UAV

Uavs are drones that are operated by radio-controlled devices and their own program controls, or operated independently, completely or intermittently, by on-board computers, Uav is widely used in aerial photography, agriculture, plant protection, micro-selfie, express delivery, disaster rescue, observing wildlife, monitoring infectious diseases, surveying and mapping, news reporting, electricity inspection, disaster relief, film and television shooting, manufacturing romance and other fields.

Uav consists of aircraft body, flight control system, data link system, launch recovery system, power supply system and so on. Flight management and control system, equivalent to the "heart" part of uav system, has an important impact on the stability of UAV, reliability of data transmission, accuracy, real-time, etc., and plays a decisive role in its flight performance. The core of uav body is aircraft controller -- master MCU.

How does the MCU in a drone work?

MCU, also called single chip microcomputer, is to appropriately reduce the frequency and specifications of the CENTRAL processor, and integrate memory, counter (Timer), USB, A/D conversion, UART, PLC, DMA and other peripheral interfaces, and even LCD drive circuits into A single chip, forming A chip level computer. Different combinations of controls for different applications. The main control MCU of UAV plays an important role in uav flight system.

Working principle of MCU single chip in UAVHow drones work:

In vertical motion, drones use rotors to advance and stop. The relativity of forces means that as the rotor pushes on the air, the air pushes back on the rotor. This is the basic principle of drones being able to go up and down. Furthermore, the faster the rotor rotates, the greater the lift, and vice versa. To turn the DRONE to the right, you need to reduce the angular velocity of rotor 1. But while the lack of thrust from rotorcraft 1 can cause the DRONE to change direction of motion, at the same time the upward force is not equal to the downward force of gravity, so the drone will descend. Drones are symmetrical. The same applies to lateral motion. A four-wheeled drone is like a car with each side as its front, so how it moves forward also explains how it moves backwards or sideways.

MCU of UAV is the core of the flight control subsystem, and the flight control system is the core system for uav to complete the whole flight process, such as takeoff, air flight, mission execution and return recovery. Flight control for UAV is equivalent to the role of pilot for human machine, and we believe it is one of the most core technologies of UAV. Flight control generally consists of sensors, airborne computers and servo actuating equipment, and its functions mainly include uav attitude stabilization and control, UAV mission equipment management and emergency control. In addition to UAV MCU, UAV also needs gyroscope, accelerometer, geomagnetic induction, air pressure sensor, ultrasonic sensor, optical flow sensor, GPS module and other cooperative work to complete the flight.

IMU senses the attitude of the aircraft in the air and sends the data to the main control processor MCU. The main control processor MCU will control the stable operation of the aircraft according to user operation instructions and IMU data through flight algorithms. The performance of the MCU also determines whether the aircraft can be controlled and whether the aircraft is stable and flexible enough.

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